viernes, 23 de marzo de 2007

Retrobament amb un vell conegut, desconegut alhora


Finalitzat el període d’exàmens de gener prenguérem la decisió d’incorporar-me al despatx familiar dues tardes a la setmana, aprofitant els dies que posteriorment tinc Deutsch Kurs. La meva feina consisteix bàsicament en aprendre, a la vegada que ajudo, d’alguna manera, a realitzar tasques relacionades amb els assumptes més variats.

Dilluns m’apareixia a l’escriptori un cas que certament em portava molts records i que motivava el meu interès en desenvolupar-lo; es tractava de preparar una demanda de redempció forçosa d’un cens, una figura jurídica actualment desconeguda i en desús quant a la seva constitució, que justament va ser l’objecte d’estudi del meu treball de recerca de batxillerat. De fet, resulta ser una institució tan obsoleta avui, que a Dret Civil -part de drets reals- a la facultat tan sols se’n va fer una breu menció, fet que no és més que una fotografia de l’estat del cens a l’actualitat; sembla trist pensar que estem assistint a la lenta agonia de l’emfiteusi però així de dinàmica és la disciplina jurídica, que evoluciona i es mou a la par que ho fa la societat.

Tanmateix, la seva definitiva desaparició no es pot establir temporalment de forma clara, ja que el cens està sotmès, ara per ara, a ressucitar contínuament tantes vegades com faci falta, habitualment quan hom es trobi amb ell en el Registre de la Propietat en el moment de procedir a la venda d’un immoble o simplement en intentar sol.licitar un préstec hipotecari. Al full d’inscripció de la finca hi constarà com a càrrega un cens de qualsevol tipus de domini que l’obligarà a pagar un cànon o pensió simbòlica anual al censualista. En aquest precís moment una pluja de preguntes li plourà al cap: Què és un cens? Per què ha de pagar aquestes quantitats ridícules anualment? Com pot evitar-ho?

El cens emfitèutic és una institució que ha tingut una trascendència econòmica i social a Catalunya molt important, motiu pel qual no se’l pot desmerèixer. La seva base, que es situa en temps força remots com a l’antiga Roma, la trobem en la necessitat de posar en explotació terrenys inhabitats o introduir millores en terrenys agrícoles existents. La seva funció s’extén fins a la constitució del món urbà; de fet, ciutats catalanes com Barcelona i Terrassa s’han desenvolupat a través de l’emfiteusi. Jurídicament podem definir el cens com aquell contracte en virtud del qual un immoble se subjecta al pagament d’una pensió anual com a retribució d’un capital rebut en diner, o un domini que es transmet amb dit immoble. Per mitjà del cens una finca és posseïda a perpetuïtat per una persona, l’emfiteuta, el qual, juntament amb els seus successors, tots ells possessors del domini útil, restaran obligats a pagar un cànon periòdic –l’anomenat cens- al senyor del domini directe o censualista. Per deixar-ho més clar, amb l’emfiteusi es desdobla el dret de propietat, assumint l’emfiteuta, com hem dit, el domini útil, i el censualista el domini directe.

No obstant la seva valuosa funció en altres èpoques, el servei d’aquesta institució a la societat és avui nul i és per això que, com s’ha dit amb anterioritat, quan el cens surt a la llum actualment només és per exercir el dret de redempció. Aquest és el que permet a l’emfiteuta deslliurar-se del lligam que mitjançant el contracte uneix la finca amb el censualista i ell mateix. Durant els últims anys es coneix que la redempció ha estat un recurs molt utilitzat per la gran majoria de propietaris afectats per la presència de l’emfiteusi al seu immoble, que sorpresos per la seva repercussió econòmica en decideixen la seva extinció.

Doncs bé, aquesta és la situació que inspirava la demanda que havia de preparar, ja que els propietaris de la finca gravada no van arribar a acord amb el censualista per redimir l’emfiteusi. I és que si no és possible el consens entre les parts a l’hora d’establir el preu de redempció, com era en el present cas, s’ha d’acudir a la via judicial mitjançant l’exercici de l’acció de redempció forçosa.
I fins aquí el breu desenvolupament d’aquesta figura que va cridar-me l’atenció el dilluns i a temps de batxillerat a l’hora d’elegir tema d’investigació. Ara referint-me a aquest espai en concret, espero que aquesta secció jurídica vagi “in crescendo” i als lectors els serveixi per conèixer una mica més aquest apassionant món. En aquesta faig aportació del meu més humil coneixement de la matèria que contínuament es troba en formació i l’únic que desitjo és servir d’alguna ajuda als desconeixedors i d’opinió sincera als juristes tant iniciats, com –i així m’agradaria- experimentats.

16 comentarios:

Xavier Cardona dijo...

Ho arribo a saber... fa poc vaig pagar una pasta gansa a ves a saber quí de Barcelona per una redempció... Tot i així una cosa no em va quedar gaire clara i és: Feliçment i amb tota la innocència del món em diuen què això té una quantitat % més o menys estiuplada sobre preu de mercat i uns mesos després llegeixo que ara va sobre el valor catastral... m'ho aclares? :P.
Xavi

Anónimo dijo...

Lo del valor cadastral ha vingut amb la nova Llei. Aquesta disposició que defineix el valor d'una finca com el valor cadastral és clarament anticonstitucional...

A part de que el valor cadastral es fixa com a 50% del valor de mercat (el famós coeficiente RM...)

La Generalitat s'oblidarà dels seus coeficients multiplicadors quan paguem impostos?

Salut!

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